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In reference to paternity tests, an alleged father’s 21 genetic markers or loci are compared to the same set of genetic markers for the child whose paternity is in question. Each of these 21 markers (or loci) is expressed as two numbers. These two numbers indicate the alleles that have been inherited; one allele for each genetic marker has been inherited from the mother and the other from the biological father.
If the result of a DNA test shows the child has alleles 18 and 19 we can determine which of these alleles was inherited from the child’s mother and from the child’s father. For example if the tested, alleged father displays alleles 18, and 6 we know that the child has inherited allele number 18 from the father as this is the common allele between them (the number 6 allele would have in turn been inherited by the alleged father from his mother).
Remember that we test 21 genetic markers and to be confirmed as the biological father of the child, we would expect a total match between all the genetic markers tested. In other words, the father and child would need to have an identical number for every one of the 21 genetic markers tested. These 21 genetic markers together form what we call a DNA profile.
When the child, alleged father and mother are tested, we will provide an extremely conclusive result of 99.99% if the tested man is the real father. This does not mean that without the mother’s sample results will be any less accurate. In fact, even without the mother’s sample, we will still have a probability of 99.9% if the alleged, tested father is the biological father.
If you would like to see examples of what our DNA paternity test results look like, click our section understanding your results.